Like many caverns in the Mid-Atlantic states, Indian Echo Caverns is a limestone cave. Cut through Beekmantown limestone, which is over 440 million years old, they were formed through the erosive properties of water. As time progressed, geological forces led to an “uplift” of the surrounding limestone, eventually allowing more and more water to flow through the formation. As the water flowed over the limestone, it began to create small crevices, these small crevices led to larger ones, and eventually, over a series of millions of years, it created the caverns as they are today.
Life using the cavern environment can be divided into two groups:
Animals that live part of their lives inside caverns usually use it for shelter. Examples of this type of life would be bats, bears, raccoons, and other mammals. They are termed troglophiles.
Animals which live inside caverns for their entire lives include some insects, crustaceans, and blind fish. They are termed troglobites. Additionally bacteria and fungi also inhabit caverns.